Contributing Part III: Project Unicorn Web Site

Rodger JordasRodger Jordas on GitHub Rodger Jordas on GitHub

Core Team Member at Project Unicorn

Published on August 30, 2019

In this post, we'll inspect the code that allows us to do the things we did in the previous post. All this is possible thanks to Gatsby. I won't be examining every aspect of Gatsby in this article, just the ones use by this project.

Please refer to Gatsby's excellent documentation for stuff that is not in here.

This is part 3 of the Project Unicorn Contributing Guide series for documenting how to contribute to the Project Unicorn web site repository.

This is the last part of the series.

A friendly warning, this part covers advanced topics. This article serves as an overview of the source for the Project Unicorn web site.

Basics

In this section, we'll learn how to preview your blog post in the browser. This allows you to see your post as if it's already published in the Project Unicorn web site.

Even if you wrote the blog posts with correct Markdown syntax, sometimes you may need to preview the article itself to get a sense of how it may look when you publish it.

Preview blog posts

NOTE: I'm assuming you already have a copy of the repository in your machine. Please read the first Part 1 if you forgot how to do that.

Contributing Part I: Getting Started

The first thing we'll do is to get to know the npm command-line interface (or CLI). npm is the package manager included with Node.js. It used to mean "Node Package Manager" because it's responsible for fetching node modules but now, it's just npm.

NOTE: They also insist to call it npm instead of Npm or NPM.

To interact with npm, we have to open a terminal (or Git Bash on Windows) to provide it with commands. It similar to how we interact with Git. So here's your first command to try:

npm help

This command will output how to use the npm CLI. We're almost ready to inspect our blog post, but for one more thing.

Running npm scripts

Before you can inspect the app in your browser, you have to first download some packages that this project requires. You can see a list of dependencies inside the file called package.json in $PROJECT_ROOT.

There's a lot of dependencies listed but you don't need to know what every package does for now. You should notice though that there are two types of dependencies: dependencies and devDependencies. Packages that the app will directly use are inside the dependencies object and the ones that are for development, testing, formatting, etc. are in devDependencies.

We need a way to get all those dependencies in our machine. The npm executable provides a command to download all the project's dependencies:

pwd # You must be in the $PROJECT_ROOT
npm install

This will grab all the packages and put them inside $PROJECT_ROOT/node_modules.

After that, you can now run the app by executing this command in your terminal:

pwd # $PROJECT_ROOT
npm start

This command will fail and npm would tell you that "<something> is not provided". For now, copy the file called $PROJECT_ROOT/.env.example to a new file called $PROJECT_ROOT/.env:

cp .env.example .env

What this file is for will be discussed later.

Now when you re-run the script, it will print some output about the status of the build and after that, it will give you instruction on how to preview it. By default the location is http://localhost:8000.

Keep this local server running and you'll be able to view the updates immediately when you change your blog post.

Other commands

The project also specifies other npm scripts you can run when working with specific portions of the application:

Script Description
build Outputs the static assets for deployment
clean Wipes out the contents of the .cache and public directories
dev Spawns a Gatsby development server
dev:m Similar to dev but can preview changes on other devices in the same network
format Runs the Prettier for Markdown and JSON files
format:precommit Similar to format but with less arguments
lint Runs ESLint to report lint errors
lint:fix Runs ESLint to check and fix errors (if possible)
start Serves the production build of the app
test Runs Jest to report results from unit tests
typecheck Runs the TypeScript compiler to report type errors

The ones you're most likely to use is dev, test and clean. The other scripts are mostly used to prepare the app for deployment or for some automated tasks like reporting errors before committing changes.

Environment variables

You may choose to provide the application some configuration via environment variables when you are running scripts.

Environment Variables

Environment variables can be added in an .env file as key-value pairs following this syntax: EXAMPLE_KEY="a value" (See .env.example). When you change something here, be sure to restart the development server.

WARNING: You should not put sensitive values in .env. These values are bundled together with the application and anyone can inspect them.

Add new directory aliases

Most of the application source code lives in the src directory. This directory is aliased as @. So, for example, you want to import a method in the file called my-util.ts inside the src directory, you can simply declare it like:

import { someMethod } from '@/my-util';

To view the list of aliases available for commonly accessed directories please refer to the TypeScript configuration file at $PROJECT_ROOT/tsconfig.json.

To add a directory, add an entry to the "compilerOptions.paths" object. The key for this entry will be the alias and the value is an array of paths relative to "compilerOptions.baseUrl".

So if you want an alias for a directory called $PROJECT_ROOT/src/stuff/:

{
  "compilerOptions": {
    // ...
    "paths": {
      // ...
      "@stuff/*": ["./src/stuff/*"]
    }
  }
}

NOTE: Don't forget to restart your development server and your editor/IDE.

Now you can import any file inside ./src/stuff by doing:

import { someMethod } from '@stuff/file';

tsconfig.json

Add a page

Now we're done with the basics, we can talk about the "internals" of the Pub project.

We've been focusing a lot on writing blog posts but we are not limited to that task. Gatsby might have gained a reputation for being a static generator, but it can also be used for building simple (not statically generated) React projects. You could also create a mix of the two to create a "hybrid app".

Hybrid app pages

At the time of writing this article, the Pub project is considered to use only the static site generation features of Gatsby. But that might change in the future.

Going back to page creation, if you like to have a landing page of sorts for your Project Unicorn project or a simple information page about something, you can do it with Gatsby. So if you want to, you can have pages for these paths: /help, /grocerhub, /slack-invite, /whatever, etc..

A page can be very simple and can be crammed into one file. For example, @pages/404.tsx and @pages/about.tsx are just React components with content inlined. I consider these as "simple" pages and we'll talk more about them in a later section.

For now, the process of adding pages is not as streamlined as there are a lot of considerations like: How can a user reach that page, or are we going to change the layout of pages to add a component that links to that page, i.e. navigation components, etc. It can potentially change the design of the website.

Prerequisites

This article assumes you have some experience in the following technologies:

  • JavaScript
  • TypeScript
  • React.js
  • GraphQL

But you don't need to be an expert at any of these to continue.

Simple pages

If you want to add a simple page, just add a React component in the @pages directory. The @pages directory is significant for Gatsby. If you put a React component in this directory Gatsby will try to make a page that is available at /<filename>. So if you want a /help page, you should name this file help.tsx. If you want a page on /grocerhub/devs, first create a new directory in @pages called "grocerhub" and inside that directory add devs.tsx.

Consider this file created at pages/ called my-page.tsx:

import * as React from 'react';

interface OwnProps {
  name?: string;
}

type MyPageProps = OwnProps;

const MyPage: React.FC<MyPageProps> = ({ name = 'Project Unicorn' }) => (
  <h1>Welcome to {name}</h1>
);

export default MyPage;

Once you build your app, you can view this page on /my-page. This page displays a very basic page where there's only a heading element as its content.

Most likely you would need to also show the top navigation and footer. These can be added by importing the Layout component. Wrap your content inside this component.

To update the values of elements in the <head /> element, you should use the Seo component. You can put this anywhere in the component hierarchy.

import * as React from 'react';

import { Layout, Seo } from '@components/shared';

// ...

const MyPage: React.FC<MyPageProps> = ({ name = 'Project Unicorn' }) => (
  <React.Fragment>
    <Seo title="My page" />

    <Layout>
      <h1>Welcome to {name}</h1>
    </Layout>
  </React.Fragment>
);

export default MyPage;

You would notice that we're using the default export syntax in components. Although we can use the named export syntax on some components, i.e.:

export const MyPage = () => ();

Gatsby requires templates to use default export. Rather than use a mix of named and default exports, this project strictly enforces the rule that all components must use the default export syntax to avoid confusion.

Advanced pages

Once your component requires data from some source, you must define the query that this component will perform on build. The most basic query you can add to your page is "static query". These queries can be used to get an image path or data about the website, e.g. name, description, etc..

query {
  file(relativePath: { eq: "default-post-image.jpg" }) {
    childImageSharp {
      fluid(maxWidth: 1800) {
        ...GatsbyImageSharpFluid
      }
    }
  }
}

The query above will get an image called default-post.image.jpg. If you'd notice there's no such file on the $PROJECT_ROOT. It's located in @images. Thanks to the gatsby-source-filesystem plugin, we allow the app to source from our local file system in the directories we specify.

Since this is defined to be fluid image Gatsby will optimize this image by creating various versions. To use this you need to import a special element from gatsby-image called Img and pass the value of data.file.childImageSharp.fluid to the fluid attribute.

import { graphql } from 'gatsby';
import { Img, FluidObject } from 'gatsby-image';
import * as React from 'react';

interface SomeComponentProps {
  data: {
    file: {
      childImageSharp: {
        fluid: FluidObject;
      };
    };
  };
}

export const defaultPostImageQuery = graphql`
  query {
    file(relativePath: { eq: "default-post-image.jpg" }) {
      childImageSharp {
        fluid(maxWidth: 1800) {
          ...GatsbyImageSharpFluid
        }
      }
    }
  }
`;

/* A component for rending a fluid image. */
const SomeComponent: React.FC<SomeComponentProps> = ({ data }) => (
  <Img fluid={data.file.childImageSharp.fluid} />
);

export default SomeComponent;

Some queries are quite common that these were extracted as a custom React hook. The above query is equivalent to using the useDefaultPostImage React hook:

import { Img } from 'gatsby-image';
import * as React from 'react';

import { useDefaultAvatarImage } from '@hooks';

const SomeComponent: React.FC = () => {
  const defaultAvatarImage = useDefaultAvatarImage();

  return <Img fluid={defaultAvatarImage.childImageSharp.fluid} />;
};

export default SomeComponent;

You're probably confused on why we'd ever need to do this instead of just importing the image directly.

One of Gatsby's well-know feature is called progressive image loading. If you happen upon reading something on Medium, you'd notice that sometimes images appear blurry at first, then it gets clearer until it displays the clearest version of the image. This is similar to what Gatsby does with some of our images in the Pub web site.

NOTE: If have a great internet connection you might not see the blurring.

Not only does it create blurry versions, it also makes versions of different sizes. This provides a better experience for folks who browser our app that are on slower speed and are typically on a mobile browser. Instead of loading an image larger than the display dimensions of the browser, Gatsby will use the most suitable size for that dimension.

Don't go crazy with this and use it on every one of the images inside the project. Sometimes it's fine just to use the OG <img /> element.

Even more advance pages

When you need to display a list of something, say, a list of recent blog posts, the process is more involved. First, you would define a page template in the @templates directory. This component is similar to other pages you will make except for the format of the query it exports (we'll go into detail later).

Consider this very basic template called blog-post-list.tsx:

import * as React from 'react';

interface BlogPostListProps {
  data: {
    allMarkdownRemark: {
      nodes: {
        frontmatter: {
          title: string;
        }[];
      };
    };
  };
  pageContext: {
    skip?: number;
    limit?: number;
    currentPage?: number;
  };
}

export const blogPostListQuery = graphql`
  query($skip: Int!, $limit: Int!) {
    allMarkdownRemark(
      sort: { fields: [frontmatter___date], order: DESC }
      limit: $limit
      skip: $skip
    ) {
      nodes {
        frontmatter {
          title
        }
      }
    }
  }
`;

/*
 * Displays a list of the title of the most recent blog posts and a page number
 * at the bottom.
 */
const BlogPostList: React.FC<BlogPostListProps> = ({ data, pageContext }) => (
  <div>
    <h1>Blog posts</h1>

    {data.allMarkdownRemark.nodes.map(({ frontmatter }) => (
      <li>{frontmatter.title}</li>
    ))}

    <p>This is page number {data.pageContext.currentPage}</p>
  </div>
);

export default BlogPostList;

What this displays is a page that lists the titles of the blog posts in our project and a page number at the bottom. The list is sorted with the most recent blog post at the top. It's also paginated thanks to the page context we will provide later when we are modifying the Gatsby Node API configuration file.

Remember when you made your blog post in $PROJECT_ROOT/content? This is a known source directory because it is specified in the Gatsby configuration file. This is where we get our data for the blog posts. In other projects, you might see that they get their blog posts (and other sources) on a remote database or service.

The <BlogPostList /> component does not care about where to get the data. It only cares that it is structured correctly.

After creating the component, the next step is to tell Gatsby that you want to create this page. Gatsby does not know about components outside the @pages directory by default. You can either configure Gatsby to watch a directory or explicitly call a method to create this page.

The Gatsby's Node API configuration file is located at $PROJECT_ROOT/gatsby-node.js and this is where we'll tell Gatsby to create the pages. The snippet below will create a single page that can be accessed at /blogpostlist.

const path = require('path');

exports.createPages = ({ actions }) => {
  // ...

  actions.createPage({
    path: '/blogpostlist',
    component: path.resolve('./src/templates/blog-post-list.tsx'),
    context: {
      limit: 6,
      skip: 0,
    },
  });
};

The exported createPages anonymous function is passed an object when Gatsby builds the app. The method we need is inside the actions field inside this object.

The createPage Action

Inside the exported createPages anonymous function, we can also call the graphql method from the destructured parameters, and pass it a template literal containing the query. This query could contain:

exports.createPages = ({ graphql, actions }) => {
  const { createPage } = actions;

  // This will query ALL the blog posts, create a page for the blog post index,
  // the individual blog posts, and the paginated blog post lists.
  const loadBlogPosts = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    // this method accepts a query string
    graphql(`
      {
        allMarkdownRemark(
          sort: { fields: [frontmatter___date], order: DESC }
          limit: 1000
        ) {
          nodes {
            frontmatter {
              title
            }
          }
        }
      }
    `).then(({ errors, data }) => {
      if (errors) {
        // if there are errors, the build fails
        reject(errors);
      }

      const nodes = data.allMarkdownRemark.nodes;
      const numPages = Math.ceil(
        nodes.slice(postsPerFirstPage).length / postsPerPage,
      );

      // the first page doesn't need the page number in its path if you want
      createPage({
        path: '/blogpostlist',
        component: path.resolve('./src/templates/blog-post-list.tsx'),
        context: {
          limit: 6,
          skip: 0,
          currentPage: 1,
        },
      });

      // the next pages, i.e. /blogpostlist/2, /blogpostlist/3, ...
      Array.from({ length: numPages }).forEach((_, i) => {
        createPage({
          path: `/blogpostlist/${i + 2}/`,
          component: path.resolve('./src/templates/blog-post-list.tsx'),
          context: {
            limit: 6,
            skip: (i + 1) * 6,
            currentPage: i + 2,
          },
        })
      })

      // finally, create each individual blog posts
      nodes.forEach((_, i, a)) => {
        createPage({
          // normally we would use a "slug" but we didn't create a field for that
          path: `/blog/${i + 2}`,
          // we need to create a new template for individual posts in the @templates directory
          // we didn't do that in this guide but you need a template that makes
          //  sense for each individual blog post
          component: './src/templates/blog-post.tsx',
          context: {
            // it's up to the individual post template to specify what it needs
          }
        })
      }

      resolve();
    });
  });

  return Promise.all([loadBlogPosts]);
};

That's it for Gatsby.

To be honest I didn't want to go deeper with the discussion because Gatsby already has excellent documentation.

Gatsby.js Documentation

Why I wrote "Pub" like this

This section explains why I decided to implement the Pub project like it currently is. Please keep in mind that I'm a beginner and some of my reasoning may be flawed. If you found something you want to correct please open an issue on Pub's GitHub repository and feel free to tag me with my GitHub username (@rmjordas).

TypeScript vs JavaScript

Why not just use JavaScript to make everything simpler? Why add confusing types to this simple project?

And my answer is the same to most questions in life: Why not?

But seriously, the reason I used TypeScript for this project is because I was part of an earlier team in Project Unicorn that used it too. So, I figured, "eh, why not?"

That's it.

npm vs Yarn

For personal projects, the default package manager I use is Yarn. But here I used just plain old npm. I do this for projects that I think may have future collaborators as it makes the instructions simpler. npm is already available when you install Node.js, whereas Yarn would need to be download and installed separately.

Ultimately, It doesn't matter what package manager we use.

Gatsby vs Next vs pure Webpack

TL;DR:

  • Gatsby is hot right now
  • Next.js is hot too but I learned Gatsby first
  • SSR with Webpack is a nightmare I don't want to experience again

Constants in the site config file

Values that don't change often are located in a file called $PROJECT_ROOT/site.config.js. It contains the usernames for social accounts, some URLs, the web manifest values, etc.

Adding a new constant or renaming an existing constant can mean changing it in a lot of places. For example, adding a new social account username would need changes in the following files:

You may have noticed duplicated lines like those in the site config file and the type definition of useSiteMetadata custom React hook. Unfortunately, it's just the way it is when using TypeScript with GraphQL. We need to define the type of the returned object from the GraphQL query. This duplication could be avoided probably by adding another dependency but it's still manageable for now.

But you might be thinking, could we put some constants in $PROJECT_ROOT/site.config.js and other constants in the src itself (e.g. in @components/constants.js where it is nearer to its usage). This avoids touching the custom React hook if that constant doesn't need to be queried by GraphQL and changing variable names only need to be updated in:

  • @components/constants.js (for example)
  • usage themselves in components(s)

So why not drop $PROJECT_ROOT/site.config.js and move the constants inside src? We can do that, but we can't take all constants because some are used by Gatsby and Gatsby plugins. We need to move some constants inside the Gatsby configuration file at $PROJECT_ROOT/gatsby-config.js and inside the Gatsby Node API configuration file at $PROJECT_ROOT/gatsby-node.js.

Now we have three places where constants are declared and this introduces confusion. We have to define what goes to where. I think it's simpler to just dump them in one file. So, my advice is to put it all in $PROJECT_ROOT/site.config.js except maybe when you're working on a very large feature, I guess.

Anyway, you'll know it when you need to break it up. Don't try to force it inside that one file.

Function components vs class components

React introduced hooks in version 16.8 and this description perfectly summarizes what it's all about:

[Hooks] let you use state and other React features without writing a class.

I encourage you to read about their motivations for why they added this feature to React. If you've worked with a lot of bigger React projects, you'll appreciate what hooks offers.

This project avoids introducing any class component. There are times when class components are necessary but they should be transformed to function components, as soon as it's possible to do so.

React may decide to deprecate class component declarations in the future so I decided that for this project, all components should be declared as function components, that is, until Dan Abramov and the React developers introduce yet another way to declare components.

Styled Components vs pure CSS

I hate writing CSS. It's what makes me temporarily lose interest in whatever feature I am working. Sadly, CSS won't go away anytime soon. It's inevitable as much as I wish it otherwise.

But hold up. This project has no *.css files anywhere. What's up with that?

Well, we don't write any styles in .css files but rather we let JavaScript write the CSS for us. Of course, we still need to express how we want to style our pages, for that we need the Styled Components library.

Why on earth do we need JavaScript to write CSS for us?

One reason is that browsers do not implement all features of the latest version of CSS. Google Chrome could support a feature whereas Microsoft Edge partially supports it through a prefix for a CSS rule. It's not fun to hunt down these prefixed CSS rules and add it to our stylesheets. Using Styled Components, we can write rules directly from the current specification and let it handle all the tedious prefix inclusion for browsers that need it.

Another reason is to avoid thinking about the "cascade". The cascade is one of the best/worst thing about CSS. I don't like it because it can be the reason for bloated CSS files. It tends to produce unused styles in my projects—those rules that I might forget to remove when I "patch" the styles far down the cascade.

With Styled Components, we can minimize this. We only add the styles directly to the component that uses them. There's no need to worry about the cascade because components are given uniquely generated class names to ensure they don't clash whatsoever. This fits well with React and how it addresses separation of concerns.

There are a lot more to Styled Components and I encourage you to explore their web site.

NOTE: An alternative to using Styled Components is to use a pre-processor like, Sass. There's also a Gatsby plugin that allows us to use Sass files in our components. We can also utilize S/CSS modules to solve the specificity issues.

Pinning dependencies vs version ranges

$PROJECT_ROOT/package.json, contains the list of npm packages that this project depends on. You'd notice that I didn't add those tilde (~) or caret (^) characters.

If you don't know, npm allows you to declare package versions as ranges and that's what those characters are for. Packages are encouraged to follow Semantic Versioning (sometimes called "SemVer") when releasing new versions.

There are three parts to the version number in a typical npm package: MAJOR, MINOR and PATCH:

MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH

From SemVer's website, these values are incremented if you:

  • MAJOR - make incompatible API changes
  • MINOR - add functionality in a backwards compatible manner
  • PATCH - make backwards compatible bug fixes

A package version with a tilde, e.g. ~0.24.3 is considered to be "approximately equivalent to 0.24.3" and any version with a PATCH value greater than or equal to 3 and with the same MAJOR and MINOR values is valid.

Whereas a package version with a caret, e.g. ^0.24.3 is considered "compatible with 0.24.3" and any MINOR value greater than or equal to 24 and with the same MAJOR value is valid (PATCH value can be anything).

Some claim that pinning dependencies is a must because developers may publish a "bad" release and it might break your project (even if it's considered to be a PATCH release). Others say don't bother because it's too tedious to maintain and it makes the Git history noisier.

I've seen projects that use either version ranges or version pinning but it's more common to see those that use version ranges, probably because it's the default behavior when installing packages from the npm registry.

I've never been comfortable with dependency versions that aren't explicitly declared. I'd rather update each package manually and potentially introduce noise to the Git history than let Node.js and npm decide what versions ranges it can use. But that's just me.

Troubleshooting and other concerns

Running the dev script doesn't work! It say "<something> is not provided!"

Please read the "Running npm scripts" section.

How do I disable Gatsby telemetry

Gatsby added telemetry when they release version 2.3.0. You can disable this by running:

gatsby telemetry --disable

Alternatively, you may set GATSBY_TELEMETRY_DISABLED to 1 on the project .env file:

GATSBY_TELEMETRY_DISABLED=1

NOTE: You might also need to restart the development server when you change the .env.

Committing changes to Git fails and deletes my changes from my file system

Not sure what is the exact cause of this but this could happen if you are running a local Gatsby development server, and you trigger the pre-commit hook (by running git commit). The pre-commit hook will process your changes and run type checks and some formatting. These actions probably overwhelm the Node.js process for some reason and deletes the changes along with other files.

When this happens, you can still recover the deleted files that are committed to Git, but all new changes will be lost (unless you have some program that tracks changes to files, e.g. Dropbox history, etc.).

For very large diffs, it is advisable to shut down the Gatsby local development server first before committing to Git.

Everything runs slow when I'm editing with Visual Studio Code

There is a TypeScript release that caused type checking to run 20x slower on projects that use Styled Components type definitions. To fix this, please make sure that your editor is using the same TypeScript version as the project. Refer to the bottom right portion of the status bar when you have an open TypeScript file. To change this value, click the version value and pick "Use Workspace Version" on the dropdown.

Maintenance

Code style guide

I strongly believe that every project needs to have documentation on how to write code consistently. This section contains a possible style guide that Pub maintainers can adapt and improve on.

To help clean up some common code style violations, we need a code formatter like Prettier. It will format the code when you trigger an action like saving a file or committing changes to a Git repo. See this link to check if your editor has support for Prettier.

TIP: If you're using Visual Studio Code (VSCode), you'll probably see Prettier as a recommended extension for this project.

Also check if EditorConfig is available in your editor. This manages some of the auto-formatting the Prettier doesn't cover.

What follows is my suggestion for a basic code style guide for the Pub project.

  • Print width: My laptop screen is quite small so I prefer to have 80 characters at most in one line. If this is too narrow for you, we can make it 120 characters. Of course there are some cases where the line will exceed these limits, e.g. long URLs, then that’s fine.
  • Tab width: Two (2) spaces per indentation-level is common in JavaScript projects.
  • Tabs: No. Use spaces.
  • Semicolons: You should always put semicolons at the end of your statements. This has the benefit of not having to memorize the rules for automatic semicolon insertion (ASI). Code that relies on ASI is technically erroneous code. Also, ECMA people are considering making semicolons mandatory in future ES versions.
  • Quotes: Use single quotes for JavaScript and CSS; Use double quotes for JSX and HTML.
  • Trailing commas: Always add trailing commas on multi-line statements, e.g. declaring an array of 20 items would most definitely be formatted to be a multi-line declaration. The last item should have a comma at the end. On single-line array and object declarations, the trailing comma is omitted. This makes diffing commits more accurately show the change introduced. Another benefit: Reordering items is easier since you don’t need to add a comma on the last item when you move it up.
  • Bracket spacing: Add spaces at the start and the end of one-line object literals. For example, const foo = { a: true };
  • JSX brackets: Put the closing angle bracket on the next line. See Prettier's example for jsxBracketSameLine: false.
  • Arrow Function Parentheses: Always add parenthesis on arrow functions even when it has only one parameter.
  • Filename: Files should have npm style (kebab-case) names, if possible. This also applies to JSX files. Although there is a convention in React, to have PascalCasing on JSX file names, we will let the extension .tsx determine if the file exports a component. If the file is not a component then we will use a .ts extension.
  • End of line: LF
  • Insert final newline: Please insert a single newline character at the end of each file.

Prettier configuration docs

It not much, but I believe it's a good starting point. I tried to include some rules from popular JavaScript style guides like Airbnb and Google but I feel I'm just copy-pasting portions of their rules to this style guide.

Besides, it's probably too early to finalize a code style guide seeing that (at the time of writing) there's only one major feature present in the project, that is, the blog. With more features added, I'm sure these rules will be refined.

Dependencies

Packages are pinned to a specific version, thus you might need to run an update now and then. Run npm outdated to check which packages are not in their latest versions. You may choose to update all packages or just some: maybe those that release MAJOR or MINOR but not PATCH versions.

If you do update, make sure to do checks to see if it broke something in the app. Run all the test suites to see if something fails, then generate a production build using npm run build and see if there are any build errors. You can delete Gatsby artifacts in .cache and public by running npm run clean and run the checks again if you're still having trouble.

IMPORTANT: Don't forget to also commit changes in package-lock.json!

When you upgrade the Node.js version, be sure to check if the Travis configuration matches the MAJOR version, i.e. 7, 10, 11. You don't need to specify the MINOR and PATCH versions.

# Update the value in this part of `travis.yml`
node_js:
  - '10'

The end

Thanks for reading!

If you find any errors please let me know by opening an issue on Pub's GitHub repository and tag me there with my GitHub username (@rmjordas).